The Bank provides financial resources, shares knowledge and analysis, supports institutions and country capacity, and facilitates partnerships and knowledge exchanges among developing countries to help them address development challenges and reach the goals of ending extreme poverty and promoting shared prosperity in a sustainable manner. As a part of the "change process", the Bank is working toward strengthening its technical capacity to deliver first-class implementation support and advisory services to its clients to help them achieve these ambitious goals. Tier II includes results achieved by countries with the support of the World Bank in the areas of institutions and governance; human development and gender; sustainable development; and finance, private sector development, and trade.
Support to Institutions and Governance
The Bank provides long-term support to countries to help them strengthen the institutions they need in order to plan and manage resources effectively, deliver services, and improve their development outcomes. The Corporate Scorecard indicators measure the number of countries that have, with World Bank support, strengthened the performance of their public sector management systems. Between fiscal years 2010 and 2013, the Bank helped 72 countries strengthen their public financial management systems, 18 countries strengthen their procurement systems, 39 countries strengthen their civil service and public administration, and 34 countries strengthen their tax policy and administration. Since fiscal year 2006, the Bank supported improvements in transparency and access to information in 78 countries, and since 2008 helped build better national statistical systems in 13 countries. Over fiscal year 2013, 88 countries received Bank support in the areas of asset, liability, and risk management. This support helps clients preserve or enhance the value of national financial assets and strengthen the capacity of official sector asset managers to manage such assets; strengthen their sovereign and sub-sovereign debt management capacity; and mitigate financial and other exogenous risks such as interest rate and currency risks, natural disasters, and commodity price volatility.
Support to Human Development and Gender
Education. The overarching goal of the Bank’s work in education is not just schooling, but learning. Given successes in achieving access to education for both boys and girls, the Bank stepped up its focus on the development of quality education systems that result in improved learning for all, as described in the Education Strategy 2020. It is also working to help the poorest countries achieve universal primary completion and gender parity in primary and secondary education by 2015. Based on the fiscal year 2013 data update, 1.1 million teachers (three-year estimate) were recruited or trained. In addition, the Bank supported learning assessment efforts in 40 countries during fiscal years 2008 to 2013, with the aim of improving the effectiveness of national education systems. As of fiscal year 2013, the Systems Approach for Better Education Results (SABER), developed by the Bank, had been introduced in more than 100 countries. SABER contains a set of tools that help countries carry out a detailed, comparable, learning-focused analysis of the quality of their education policies.
Health. The Bank is committed to helping countries improve the health and nutrition of their populations by strengthening health systems, expanding access and quality, and controlling disease. Results are at the core of the health sector operations, and the Bank was an early adopter of results-based financing that links payments with outputs and outcomes—for example, the number of women receiving antenatal care. Since 2007, the Bank-administered Health Results Innovation Trust Fund has helped a number of countries develop results-based projects and is currently financing 31 country pilot grants in 28 countries—18 of them in Africa. The Corporate Scorecard ‘s update for fiscal year 2013 shows the following three-year estimates: 34.8 million people received packages of basic health services, 144 million children were immunized, 55.7 million people from vulnerable groups were provided nutrition services, and 48 million pregnant women received antenatal care. The Bank also plays a leading role in generating knowledge on the impact of health investments on maternal and children’s health outcomes.
Social Protection. Social protection and labor policies and programs are designed to improve people’s capacity to manage risks and their resilience to diverse shocks, including financial, fuel, and food crises. They focus especially on vulnerable groups, equity for the poor with protection against destitution and poverty, and opportunity for all by promoting human capital in children and adults and “connecting” men and women to more productive employment. IEG assessed Bank- financed safety nets positively for maintaining project quality while also responding quickly. The Bank almost tripled its support to safety net and other social protection and labor programs during fiscal years 2009 to 2011 in response to the financial, fuel, and food crises. Based on the review of the most recent project exit data, nearly 105 million people (three-year estimates) have benefitted from the coverage of social safety nets. In addition, knowledge services have increasingly played a critical part in supporting the safety nets agenda, particularly where implementation capacity is weak. In fiscal years 2009 to 2012, the Bank conducted a total of 60 safety net assessments, covering 40 countries.
Gender. The Bank’s approach to gender has evolved from a primary focus on human development to a more comprehensive framework encompassing women’s economic opportunities and women’s voice, agency, and participation. The Bank’s operations and analytical work both cover a wide range of gender-related topics, including economic opportunity, jobs, gender-based violence, inclusion, voice, and leadership; as well as increasingly diverse sectors, including agriculture, rural development, infrastructure, extractive industries, and entrepreneurship. The Corporate Scorecard data show that Bank support is enabling countries to reach women and girls. The updated three-year estimate for women and girls that benefitted from social protection programs and other targeted schemes is 86 million. In addition, as noted earlier, the latest three-year estimate for women that received antenatal care is 48 million.
Support to Sustainable Development
Infrastructure. The Bank helps countries follow a sustainable development path by supporting improved access to infrastructure services and building capacity and providing tools to plan and prioritize investments, especially for the poor. The Bank will continue to help countries deliver investments that optimize spatial, low-carbon, inclusive growth and co-benefits. Such projects can be regional and can connect countries with power grids, large-scale renewable energy, broadband, and transportation corridors. These investments often mobilize additional private capital through expanded public−private partnership arrangements and greater use of guarantee instruments.
In the transport sector, the Bank emphasizes integrated transport solutions to support safe, clean, and affordable transport. It takes account of the wider benefits of transport in providing access to social services, generating trade opportunities, and shaping the economic geography of countries and regions. Based on the fiscal year 2013 review, three-year estimates show that Bank-supported projects constructed or rehabilitated 73,101 kilometers of roads. In the water sector, the Bank supports countries’ efforts to improve governance and management of the water supply and sanitation infrastructure, strengthen institutional capacities at the state and local levels, and promote sustainable utilities. Based on the fiscal year 2013 data review, three-year estimates show that Bank-supported projects have provided 40.1 million people with access to improved water and 4.3 million people with access to improved sanitation.
In the energy sector, World Bank engagement focuses on helping client countries secure affordable, reliable, and sustainable energy supply needed to achieve the goals of ending extreme poverty and promoting shared prosperity. The approach mirrors the objectives of the Sustainable Energy for All Initiative aimed at achieving universal access to modern energy services, accelerating improvements in energy efficiency, and doubling the global share of renewable energy by 2030. This is the first year that the Corporate Scorecard reports on the number of people provided with electricity access. The fiscal year 2013 data review shows a three-year estimate of 4.4 million people that gained direct access to electricity through grid or off-grid connections. In addition, it can be inferred that 2.8 million people (three- year estimate) were provided with access to electricity as a result of World Bank-funded generation projects that contributed a portion of their power to supply new connections. The Corporate Scorecard reports the total number of people provided with access to electricity through direct and inferred connections. The Bank has continued supporting generation, transmission, and distribution investments, with the updated three-year estimates of 3,032 megawatts of generation capacity, and 22,156 kilometers of transmission and distribution lines as of fiscal year 2013.
Agriculture and Food Security. With 75 percent of the world’s poor living in rural areas and most involved in farming, supporting agriculture remains fundamental to achieving economic growth, poverty reduction, economic transformation, and food security, especially in Africa. In response to the 2008 food crisis, the Bank increased its support to agriculture, focusing on raising agricultural productivity, reducing risk and vulnerability, improving non-farm rural incomes, and strengthening the governance of natural resource use. According to the fiscal year 2013 data analysis of key elements of agricultural productivity and food security, three-year estimates show that the Bank has supported provision of irrigation services for more than 1.4 million hectares of arable lands, helped 710,562 farmers adopt improved agricultural technologies, and reached 55.7 million pregnant/lactating women, adolescent girls and/or children under age five with basic nutrition services. Also, since 2008, operations funded under the Global Food Crisis Response Program have reached an estimated 66 million people in 49 countries through public works programs, school feeding programs, nutritional interventions, cash transfer programs, and the provision of agricultural inputs and rehabilitation of small-scale irrigation.
Climate Change and the Environment. The Bank aims to help the global community and individual countries increase resilience to the impacts of climate change; develop clean energy solutions; adopt climate-smart plans in land use, agriculture, and infrastructure; and protect vulnerable groups from environment-related health risks such as air and water pollution. The climate change agenda has been integrated across the World Bank as a priority, and the Bank is supporting adaptation and/or mitigation programs in 130 countries. The Bank is working with clients to mobilize and leverage resources to advance climate-smart development with the Climate Investment Funds (CIF) and other financing instruments. Forty-eight countries are tapping CIF resources of $7.6 billion to plan and implement innovative country-led strategies to accelerate low-carbon, climate-resilient development. The Bank also supports market-based mechanisms for mitigation in 65 countries through carbon finance operations and capacity building activities. The capacity building activities have grown significantly in recent years and include a number of additional countries beyond those in which the Bank has a carbon finance portfolio. The support from the Bank’s special climate instruments contributed to about 432 metric-tons reduction in CO2 equivalent over fiscal years 2010 to 2012.
Through the Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery (GFDRR), a trust fund established in 2006, and other mechanisms, the Bank helps countries recover from natural disasters and develop Institutions, programs, and instruments to better withstand future shocks. The new outcome measure replacing the output indicator reports on the number of countries that ensure that disaster risk reduction is a national or local priority. The indicator (Priority 1 of the Hyogo Framework for Action 2005-2015) measures the extent to which countries have a national policy, legal framework, capacity, resources, community participation, and multispectral platforms for disaster risk reduction. In fiscal years 2010 to 2012, Bank operations helped 21 countries ensure that disaster risk reduction is a national priority. GFDRR analysis also shows that its advisory and technical assistance activities have contributed to ensuring that disaster risk reduction is a national priority in 14 countries.
Support to Finance, Private Sector Development, and Trade
In the aftermath of the global financial crisis, Bank support for expanding opportunities for private sector development is particularly relevant. Private sector investment and expansion are critical for the creation and preservation of jobs, and the Bank works to enhance competition, innovation, and entrepreneurship, and build the environment to attract private investment. In more than 70 countries, the Bank continues to support the broadening and deepening of financial markets to improve access by micro, small, and medium enterprises; the development of payment and remittance systems, collateral registries, and credit bureaus; and the creation of supportive regulatory and supervisory environments. During fiscal years 2009 to 2013, microfinance and financial institutions benefiting from Bank support had an average of 30 million active microfinance loan accounts per year in the developing world. The Bank also continues to participate in the global dialogue on reforming the international financial system and helping countries conduct evaluations that measure their performance against international standards in order to identify and implement needed changes.
A country’s competitiveness is also affected by trade costs and trade logistics. The Bank supports governments with development of trade corridors, trade facilitation, and improved logistics focusing on reducing inefficiencies along the supply chain. More than two- thirds of World Bank CASs/CPSs include trade-related activities, and the Bank is the largest multilateral provider of Aid for Trade. The Bank advises governments on how to reduce the time and costs involved in trade and to rationalize trade logistics systems and services. It includes help with border clearance processes; electronic payment systems; and interagency coordination on a variety of issues, including customs, product standards, phytosanitary standards, health standards, and “green” supply chains. During fiscal years 2011 to 2013, the Bank supported 35 countries in successfully applying trade-related diagnostic tools. These tools allow for a comprehensive assessment of the constraints to competitiveness and trade facilitation.